Source code for django.http.response

import datetime
import io
import json
import mimetypes
import os
import re
import sys
import time
import warnings
from email.header import Header
from http.client import responses
from urllib.parse import urlparse

from asgiref.sync import async_to_sync, sync_to_async

from django.conf import settings
from django.core import signals, signing
from django.core.exceptions import DisallowedRedirect
from django.core.serializers.json import DjangoJSONEncoder
from django.http.cookie import SimpleCookie
from django.utils import timezone
from django.utils.datastructures import CaseInsensitiveMapping
from django.utils.encoding import iri_to_uri
from django.utils.http import content_disposition_header, http_date
from django.utils.regex_helper import _lazy_re_compile

_charset_from_content_type_re = _lazy_re_compile(
    r";\s*charset=(?P<charset>[^\s;]+)", re.I

class ResponseHeaders(CaseInsensitiveMapping):
    def __init__(self, data):
        Populate the initial data using __setitem__ to ensure values are
        correctly encoded.
        self._store = {}
        if data:
            for header, value in self._unpack_items(data):
                self[header] = value

    def _convert_to_charset(self, value, charset, mime_encode=False):
        Convert headers key/value to ascii/latin-1 native strings.
        `charset` must be 'ascii' or 'latin-1'. If `mime_encode` is True and
        `value` can't be represented in the given charset, apply MIME-encoding.
            if isinstance(value, str):
                # Ensure string is valid in given charset
            elif isinstance(value, bytes):
                # Convert bytestring using given charset
                value = value.decode(charset)
                value = str(value)
                # Ensure string is valid in given charset.
            if "\n" in value or "\r" in value:
                raise BadHeaderError(
                    f"Header values can't contain newlines (got {value!r})"
        except UnicodeError as e:
            # Encoding to a string of the specified charset failed, but we
            # don't know what type that value was, or if it contains newlines,
            # which we may need to check for before sending it to be
            # encoded for multiple character sets.
            if (isinstance(value, bytes) and (b"\n" in value or b"\r" in value)) or (
                isinstance(value, str) and ("\n" in value or "\r" in value)
                raise BadHeaderError(
                    f"Header values can't contain newlines (got {value!r})"
                ) from e
            if mime_encode:
                value = Header(value, "utf-8", maxlinelen=sys.maxsize).encode()
                e.reason += ", HTTP response headers must be in %s format" % charset
        return value

    def __delitem__(self, key):

    def __setitem__(self, key, value):
        key = self._convert_to_charset(key, "ascii")
        value = self._convert_to_charset(value, "latin-1", mime_encode=True)
        self._store[key.lower()] = (key, value)

    def pop(self, key, default=None):
        return self._store.pop(key.lower(), default)

    def setdefault(self, key, value):
        if key not in self:
            self[key] = value

class BadHeaderError(ValueError):

[docs]class HttpResponseBase: """ An HTTP response base class with dictionary-accessed headers. This class doesn't handle content. It should not be used directly. Use the HttpResponse and StreamingHttpResponse subclasses instead. """ status_code = 200 def __init__( self, content_type=None, status=None, reason=None, charset=None, headers=None ): self.headers = ResponseHeaders(headers) self._charset = charset if "Content-Type" not in self.headers: if content_type is None: content_type = f"text/html; charset={self.charset}" self.headers["Content-Type"] = content_type elif content_type: raise ValueError( "'headers' must not contain 'Content-Type' when the " "'content_type' parameter is provided." ) self._resource_closers = [] # This parameter is set by the handler. It's necessary to preserve the # historical behavior of request_finished. self._handler_class = None self.cookies = SimpleCookie() self.closed = False if status is not None: try: self.status_code = int(status) except (ValueError, TypeError): raise TypeError("HTTP status code must be an integer.") if not 100 <= self.status_code <= 599: raise ValueError("HTTP status code must be an integer from 100 to 599.") self._reason_phrase = reason @property def reason_phrase(self): if self._reason_phrase is not None: return self._reason_phrase # Leave self._reason_phrase unset in order to use the default # reason phrase for status code. return responses.get(self.status_code, "Unknown Status Code") @reason_phrase.setter def reason_phrase(self, value): self._reason_phrase = value @property def charset(self): if self._charset is not None: return self._charset # The Content-Type header may not yet be set, because the charset is # being inserted *into* it. if content_type := self.headers.get("Content-Type"): if matched := # Extract the charset and strip its double quotes. # Note that having parsed it from the Content-Type, we don't # store it back into the _charset for later intentionally, to # allow for the Content-Type to be switched again later. return matched["charset"].replace('"', "") return settings.DEFAULT_CHARSET @charset.setter def charset(self, value): self._charset = value def serialize_headers(self): """HTTP headers as a bytestring.""" return b"\r\n".join( [ key.encode("ascii") + b": " + value.encode("latin-1") for key, value in self.headers.items() ] ) __bytes__ = serialize_headers @property def _content_type_for_repr(self): return ( ', "%s"' % self.headers["Content-Type"] if "Content-Type" in self.headers else "" ) def __setitem__(self, header, value): self.headers[header] = value def __delitem__(self, header): del self.headers[header] def __getitem__(self, header): return self.headers[header] def has_header(self, header): """Case-insensitive check for a header.""" return header in self.headers __contains__ = has_header def items(self): return self.headers.items() def get(self, header, alternate=None): return self.headers.get(header, alternate) def set_cookie( self, key, value="", max_age=None, expires=None, path="/", domain=None, secure=False, httponly=False, samesite=None, ): """ Set a cookie. ``expires`` can be: - a string in the correct format, - a naive ``datetime.datetime`` object in UTC, - an aware ``datetime.datetime`` object in any time zone. If it is a ``datetime.datetime`` object then calculate ``max_age``. ``max_age`` can be: - int/float specifying seconds, - ``datetime.timedelta`` object. """ self.cookies[key] = value if expires is not None: if isinstance(expires, datetime.datetime): if timezone.is_naive(expires): expires = timezone.make_aware(expires, datetime.timezone.utc) delta = expires - # Add one second so the date matches exactly (a fraction of # time gets lost between converting to a timedelta and # then the date string). delta += datetime.timedelta(seconds=1) # Just set max_age - the max_age logic will set expires. expires = None if max_age is not None: raise ValueError("'expires' and 'max_age' can't be used together.") max_age = max(0, delta.days * 86400 + delta.seconds) else: self.cookies[key]["expires"] = expires else: self.cookies[key]["expires"] = "" if max_age is not None: if isinstance(max_age, datetime.timedelta): max_age = max_age.total_seconds() self.cookies[key]["max-age"] = int(max_age) # IE requires expires, so set it if hasn't been already. if not expires: self.cookies[key]["expires"] = http_date(time.time() + max_age) if path is not None: self.cookies[key]["path"] = path if domain is not None: self.cookies[key]["domain"] = domain if secure: self.cookies[key]["secure"] = True if httponly: self.cookies[key]["httponly"] = True if samesite: if samesite.lower() not in ("lax", "none", "strict"): raise ValueError('samesite must be "lax", "none", or "strict".') self.cookies[key]["samesite"] = samesite def setdefault(self, key, value): """Set a header unless it has already been set.""" self.headers.setdefault(key, value) def set_signed_cookie(self, key, value, salt="", **kwargs): value = signing.get_cookie_signer(salt=key + salt).sign(value) return self.set_cookie(key, value, **kwargs) def delete_cookie(self, key, path="/", domain=None, samesite=None): # Browsers can ignore the Set-Cookie header if the cookie doesn't use # the secure flag and: # - the cookie name starts with "__Host-" or "__Secure-", or # - the samesite is "none". secure = key.startswith(("__Secure-", "__Host-")) or ( samesite and samesite.lower() == "none" ) self.set_cookie( key, max_age=0, path=path, domain=domain, secure=secure, expires="Thu, 01 Jan 1970 00:00:00 GMT", samesite=samesite, ) # Common methods used by subclasses def make_bytes(self, value): """Turn a value into a bytestring encoded in the output charset.""" # Per PEP 3333, this response body must be bytes. To avoid returning # an instance of a subclass, this function returns `bytes(value)`. # This doesn't make a copy when `value` already contains bytes. # Handle string types -- we can't rely on force_bytes here because: # - Python attempts str conversion first # - when self._charset != 'utf-8' it re-encodes the content if isinstance(value, (bytes, memoryview)): return bytes(value) if isinstance(value, str): return bytes(value.encode(self.charset)) # Handle non-string types. return str(value).encode(self.charset) # These methods partially implement the file-like object interface. # See # The WSGI server must call this method upon completion of the request. # See def close(self): for closer in self._resource_closers: try: closer() except Exception: pass # Free resources that were still referenced. self._resource_closers.clear() self.closed = True signals.request_finished.send(sender=self._handler_class) def write(self, content): raise OSError("This %s instance is not writable" % self.__class__.__name__) def flush(self): pass def tell(self): raise OSError( "This %s instance cannot tell its position" % self.__class__.__name__ ) # These methods partially implement a stream-like object interface. # See def readable(self): return False def seekable(self): return False def writable(self): return False def writelines(self, lines): raise OSError("This %s instance is not writable" % self.__class__.__name__)
[docs]class HttpResponse(HttpResponseBase): """ An HTTP response class with a string as content. This content can be read, appended to, or replaced. """ streaming = False
[docs] def __init__(self, content=b"", *args, **kwargs): super().__init__(*args, **kwargs) # Content is a bytestring. See the `content` property methods. self.content = content
def __repr__(self): return "<%(cls)s status_code=%(status_code)d%(content_type)s>" % { "cls": self.__class__.__name__, "status_code": self.status_code, "content_type": self._content_type_for_repr, } def serialize(self): """Full HTTP message, including headers, as a bytestring.""" return self.serialize_headers() + b"\r\n\r\n" + self.content __bytes__ = serialize @property def content(self): return b"".join(self._container) @content.setter def content(self, value): # Consume iterators upon assignment to allow repeated iteration. if hasattr(value, "__iter__") and not isinstance( value, (bytes, memoryview, str) ): content = b"".join(self.make_bytes(chunk) for chunk in value) if hasattr(value, "close"): try: value.close() except Exception: pass else: content = self.make_bytes(value) # Create a list of properly encoded bytestrings to support write(). self._container = [content] def __iter__(self): return iter(self._container)
[docs] def write(self, content): self._container.append(self.make_bytes(content))
[docs] def tell(self): return len(self.content)
[docs] def getvalue(self): return self.content
[docs] def writable(self): return True
[docs] def writelines(self, lines): for line in lines: self.write(line)
[docs]class StreamingHttpResponse(HttpResponseBase): """ A streaming HTTP response class with an iterator as content. This should only be iterated once, when the response is streamed to the client. However, it can be appended to or replaced with a new iterator that wraps the original content (or yields entirely new content). """ streaming = True def __init__(self, streaming_content=(), *args, **kwargs): super().__init__(*args, **kwargs) # `streaming_content` should be an iterable of bytestrings. # See the `streaming_content` property methods. self.streaming_content = streaming_content def __repr__(self): return "<%(cls)s status_code=%(status_code)d%(content_type)s>" % { "cls": self.__class__.__qualname__, "status_code": self.status_code, "content_type": self._content_type_for_repr, } @property def content(self): raise AttributeError( "This %s instance has no `content` attribute. Use " "`streaming_content` instead." % self.__class__.__name__ ) @property def streaming_content(self): if self.is_async: # pull to lexical scope to capture fixed reference in case # streaming_content is set again later. _iterator = self._iterator async def awrapper(): async for part in _iterator: yield self.make_bytes(part) return awrapper() else: return map(self.make_bytes, self._iterator) @streaming_content.setter def streaming_content(self, value): self._set_streaming_content(value) def _set_streaming_content(self, value): # Ensure we can never iterate on "value" more than once. try: self._iterator = iter(value) self.is_async = False except TypeError: self._iterator = value.__aiter__() self.is_async = True if hasattr(value, "close"): self._resource_closers.append(value.close) def __iter__(self): try: return iter(self.streaming_content) except TypeError: warnings.warn( "StreamingHttpResponse must consume asynchronous iterators in order to " "serve them synchronously. Use a synchronous iterator instead.", Warning, ) # async iterator. Consume in async_to_sync and map back. async def to_list(_iterator): as_list = [] async for chunk in _iterator: as_list.append(chunk) return as_list return map(self.make_bytes, iter(async_to_sync(to_list)(self._iterator))) async def __aiter__(self): try: async for part in self.streaming_content: yield part except TypeError: warnings.warn( "StreamingHttpResponse must consume synchronous iterators in order to " "serve them asynchronously. Use an asynchronous iterator instead.", Warning, ) # sync iterator. Consume via sync_to_async and yield via async # generator. for part in await sync_to_async(list)(self.streaming_content): yield part def getvalue(self): return b"".join(self.streaming_content)
[docs]class FileResponse(StreamingHttpResponse): """ A streaming HTTP response class optimized for files. """ block_size = 4096 def __init__(self, *args, as_attachment=False, filename="", **kwargs): self.as_attachment = as_attachment self.filename = filename self._no_explicit_content_type = ( "content_type" not in kwargs or kwargs["content_type"] is None ) super().__init__(*args, **kwargs) def _set_streaming_content(self, value): if not hasattr(value, "read"): self.file_to_stream = None return super()._set_streaming_content(value) self.file_to_stream = filelike = value if hasattr(filelike, "close"): self._resource_closers.append(filelike.close) value = iter(lambda:, b"") self.set_headers(filelike) super()._set_streaming_content(value)
[docs] def set_headers(self, filelike): """ Set some common response headers (Content-Length, Content-Type, and Content-Disposition) based on the `filelike` response content. """ filename = getattr(filelike, "name", "") filename = filename if isinstance(filename, str) else "" seekable = hasattr(filelike, "seek") and ( not hasattr(filelike, "seekable") or filelike.seekable() ) if hasattr(filelike, "tell"): if seekable: initial_position = filelike.tell(), io.SEEK_END) self.headers["Content-Length"] = filelike.tell() - initial_position elif hasattr(filelike, "getbuffer"): self.headers["Content-Length"] = ( filelike.getbuffer().nbytes - filelike.tell() ) elif os.path.exists(filename): self.headers["Content-Length"] = ( os.path.getsize(filename) - filelike.tell() ) elif seekable: self.headers["Content-Length"] = sum( iter(lambda: len(, 0) )["Content-Length"]), io.SEEK_END) filename = os.path.basename(self.filename or filename) if self._no_explicit_content_type: if filename: content_type, encoding = mimetypes.guess_type(filename) # Encoding isn't set to prevent browsers from automatically # uncompressing files. content_type = { "bzip2": "application/x-bzip", "gzip": "application/gzip", "xz": "application/x-xz", }.get(encoding, content_type) self.headers["Content-Type"] = ( content_type or "application/octet-stream" ) else: self.headers["Content-Type"] = "application/octet-stream" if content_disposition := content_disposition_header( self.as_attachment, filename ): self.headers["Content-Disposition"] = content_disposition
class HttpResponseRedirectBase(HttpResponse): allowed_schemes = ["http", "https", "ftp"] def __init__(self, redirect_to, *args, **kwargs): super().__init__(*args, **kwargs) self["Location"] = iri_to_uri(redirect_to) parsed = urlparse(str(redirect_to)) if parsed.scheme and parsed.scheme not in self.allowed_schemes: raise DisallowedRedirect( "Unsafe redirect to URL with protocol '%s'" % parsed.scheme ) url = property(lambda self: self["Location"]) def __repr__(self): return ( '<%(cls)s status_code=%(status_code)d%(content_type)s, url="%(url)s">' % { "cls": self.__class__.__name__, "status_code": self.status_code, "content_type": self._content_type_for_repr, "url": self.url, } )
[docs]class HttpResponseRedirect(HttpResponseRedirectBase): status_code = 302
[docs]class HttpResponsePermanentRedirect(HttpResponseRedirectBase): status_code = 301
[docs]class HttpResponseNotModified(HttpResponse): status_code = 304 def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs): super().__init__(*args, **kwargs) del self["content-type"] @HttpResponse.content.setter def content(self, value): if value: raise AttributeError( "You cannot set content to a 304 (Not Modified) response" ) self._container = []
[docs]class HttpResponseBadRequest(HttpResponse): status_code = 400
[docs]class HttpResponseNotFound(HttpResponse): status_code = 404
[docs]class HttpResponseForbidden(HttpResponse): status_code = 403
[docs]class HttpResponseNotAllowed(HttpResponse): status_code = 405 def __init__(self, permitted_methods, *args, **kwargs): super().__init__(*args, **kwargs) self["Allow"] = ", ".join(permitted_methods) def __repr__(self): return "<%(cls)s [%(methods)s] status_code=%(status_code)d%(content_type)s>" % { "cls": self.__class__.__name__, "status_code": self.status_code, "content_type": self._content_type_for_repr, "methods": self["Allow"], }
[docs]class HttpResponseGone(HttpResponse): status_code = 410
[docs]class HttpResponseServerError(HttpResponse): status_code = 500
class Http404(Exception): pass
[docs]class JsonResponse(HttpResponse): """ An HTTP response class that consumes data to be serialized to JSON. :param data: Data to be dumped into json. By default only ``dict`` objects are allowed to be passed due to a security flaw before ECMAScript 5. See the ``safe`` parameter for more information. :param encoder: Should be a json encoder class. Defaults to ``django.core.serializers.json.DjangoJSONEncoder``. :param safe: Controls if only ``dict`` objects may be serialized. Defaults to ``True``. :param json_dumps_params: A dictionary of kwargs passed to json.dumps(). """ def __init__( self, data, encoder=DjangoJSONEncoder, safe=True, json_dumps_params=None, **kwargs, ): if safe and not isinstance(data, dict): raise TypeError( "In order to allow non-dict objects to be serialized set the " "safe parameter to False." ) if json_dumps_params is None: json_dumps_params = {} kwargs.setdefault("content_type", "application/json") data = json.dumps(data, cls=encoder, **json_dumps_params) super().__init__(content=data, **kwargs)
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