Советы для Джанго

Шпаргалка Django ORM Relationships

I want to start this story with saying thanks to Mahmoud Zalt, who published a really useful article “Eloquent Relationships Cheat Sheet” about a year ago and also gave me permission to use the same structure/images/examples in my article.

  • One to One Relationship
  • One to Many Relationship
  • Many to Many Relationship
  • Polymorphic One to Many Relationship — Generic Relations
  • Polymorphic One to Many Relationship — django-polymorphic package
  • Polymorphic Many to Many Relationship — django-polymorphic package

One to One Relationship

Demo details:

In this demo we have 2 models (Owner and Car), and 2 tables (owners and cars).

Business Rules:

The Owner can own one Car.
The Car can be owned by one Owner.

Relations Diagram:

Relationship Details:

The Cars table should store the Owner ID.

Models:

class Owner(models.Model):

    #...
    name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
class Car(models.Model):

    #...
    name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
    owner = models.OneToOneField(
        Owner,
        on_delete=models.CASCADE,
        related_name='car'
    )

Store Records:

car = Car.objects.get(id=1)
owner  = Owner.objects.get(id=1)
# Create relation between Owner and Car.
owner.car = car
owner.car.save()
# Create relation between Car and Owner.
car.owner = owner
car.save()

Retrieve Records:

# Get Owner Car
owner.car

# Get Car Owner
car.owner;

One to Many Relationship

Demo details:

In this demo we have 2 models (Thief and Car), and 2 tables (thieves and cars).

Business Rules:

The Thief can steal many Cars.
The Car can be stolen by one Thief.

Relations Diagram:

Relationship Details:

The Cars table should store the Thief ID.

Models:

class Thief(models.Model):

    # ...
    name = models.CharField(max_length=255)

class Car(models.Model):

    # ...
    name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
    thief = models.ForeignKey(
        Thief,
        on_delete=models.CASCADE,
        related_name='cars'
    )

Store Records:

thief  = Thief.objects.get(id=1)
car1 = Car.objects.get(id=1)
...
# Create relation between Thief and Car.
thief.cars.add(car1,car2, car3)
# Create relation between Car and Thief.
car.thief = thief
car.save()
# When we creating new car : 
car = Car(name = 'test name', thief=thief)
car.save()

Retrieve Records:

# Get Thief Car  
thief.cars.all()
# Get Car Thief
car.thief

Many to Many Relationship

Demo details:

In this demo we have 2 models (Driver and Car), and 3 tables (driverscars and a pivot table named car_drivers).

Business Rules:

The Driver can drive many Cars.
The Car can be driven by many Drivers.

Relations Diagram:

Relationship Details:

The Pivot table “car_driver” should store the Driver ID and the Car ID.

Models:

class Driver(models.Model):

    # ...
    name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
class Car(models.Model):

    # ...
    name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
    drivers = models.ManyToManyField(
        Driver,
        related_name='cars'
    )

Store Records:

# Create relation between Driver and Car.
driver  = Driver.objects.get(id=1)
car1 = Car.objects.get(id=1)
car2 = Car.objects.get(id=2)
driver.cars.add(car1,car2)
# Create relation between Car and Driver.
car = Car.objects.get(id=1)
driver1  = Driver.objects.get(id=2)
driver2  = Driver.objects.get(id=3)

car.drivers.add(driver1, driver2)

Retrieve Records:

# Get Driver Car
driver.cars.all()
# Get Car Drivers
car.drivers.all()

Polymorphic One to Many Relationship

With Django’s Generic Relations

Demo details:

In this demo we have 3 models (Man, Woman and Car), and 3 tables (menwomen and cars).

Business Rules:

The Man (buyer) can buy many Cars
The Woman (buyer) can buy many Cars.
The Car can be bought by one buyer (Man or Woman).

Relations Diagram:

Relationship Details:

The Car table should store the Buyer ID and the Buyer table should store the relation between ID and Type.

Models:

from django.contrib.contenttypes.fields import GenericForeignKey
from django.contrib.contenttypes.fields import GenericRelation
from django.contrib.contenttypes.models import ContentType
class Car(models.Model):
    # ...
    name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
    content_type = models.ForeignKey(ContentType,         on_delete=models.CASCADE)
    object_id = models.PositiveIntegerField()
    content_object = GenericForeignKey()
class Woman(models.Model):
    # ...
    name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
    cars = GenericRelation(Car)
class Man(models.Model):
    # ...
    name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
    cars = GenericRelation(Car)

Store Records:

man = Man.objects.get(id=1)
woman = Woman.objects.get(id=1)
# Create relation between buyer (Man/Woman) and Car.
car = Car.objects.get(id=1)
woman.cars.add(car)
# Create relation between Car and buyer (Men/Women).
man = Man.objects.get(id=1)
woman = Woman.objects.get(id=1)
c = Car(name = 'test name',content_object=man)
c.save()
c = Car(name = 'test name',content_object=woman)
c.save()

Retrieve Records:

# Get buyer (Man/Woman) Cars
man.cars.all()
woman.cars.all()
# Get Car buyer (Man and Woman)
car.content_object

Polymorphic One to Many Relationship

With package — django-polymorphic.

Demo details:

In this demo we have 4 models (BuyerMan, Woman and Car), and 4 tables (buyermenwomen and cars).

Business Rules:

The Man (buyer) can buy many Cars
The Woman (buyer) can buy many Cars.
The Car can be bought by one buyer (Man or Woman).

Relations Diagram:

Relationship Details:

The Car table should store the Buyer ID and the Buyer table should store the relation between ID and Type.

Models:

from polymorphic.models import PolymorphicModel
class Buyer(PolymorphicModel):
    pass

class Woman(Buyer):

    # ...
    name = models.CharField(max_length=255)



class Man(Buyer):

    # ...
    name = models.CharField(max_length=255)



class Car(models.Model):

    # Fields

    name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
    buyer = models.ForeignKey(
        Buyer,
        on_delete=models.CASCADE,
        related_name='cars'
    )

Store Records:

man = Buyer.objects.get(id=1) # or Man.objecets.get(id=1)
woman = Buyer.objects.get(id=2) # or Woman.objecets.get(id=2)
# Create relation between buyer (Man/Woman) and Car.
man.cars.add(car1, car2)
woman.cars.add(car1, car2)
# Create relation between Car and buyer (Men/Women).
c = Car(name = 'test name', buyer = man)
c.save()
c = Car(name = 'test name', buyer = woman)
c.save()

Retrieve Records:

# Get buyer (Man/Woman) Cars
man.cars.all()
woman.cars.all()
# Get Car buyer (Man and Woman)
car.buyer

Polymorphic Many to Many Relationship

With package — django-polymorphic.

Demo details:

In this demo we have 3 models (Valet, Owner and Car), and 4 tables (valetsowners, cars and drivers).

Business Rules:

The Valet (driver) can drive many Cars
The Owner (driver) can drive many Cars.
The Car can be driven by many drivers (Valet or/and Owner).

Relations Diagram:

Relationship Details:

The Pivot table “drivers” should store the Driver IDDriver Type and the CarID.
“driver” is a name given to a group of models (Valet and Owner). And it’s not limited to two. The driver type is the real name of the model.

Models:

from polymorphic.models import PolymorphicModel
class Driver(PolymorphicModel):
    pass
class Owner(Driver):

    # ...
    name = models.CharField(max_length=255)


class Valet(Driver):

    # ...
    name = models.CharField(max_length=255)



class Car(models.Model):

    # ...

    name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
    drivers = models.ManyToManyField(
        Driver,
        related_name='cars'
    )

Store Records:

# Create relation between driver (Valet/Owner) and Car.
owner.cars.add(car1, car2)
# Create relation between Car and driver (Valet/Owner).
car.drivers.add(owner, valet)

Retrieve Records:

# Get driver (Valet/Owner) Cars
valet.cars.all()
owner.cars.all()
# Get Car drivers (Valet and Owner)
car.drivers.all()
car1.drivers.instance_of(Valet)
car1.drivers.instance_of(Owner)

I also highly recommend to read the article, that describes polymorphic many to many relationships with another django package (django-gm2m).

Thanks for reading and stay in touch.

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